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10 Types of Surgeons That Perform Surgery

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The field of surgery stands out among career paths, offering unparalleled personal and professional satisfaction. Moreover, its career outlook remains exceptionally promising, characterised by stability and a strong demand for specialised surgeons. According to the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC), there is a significant projected shortage of up to 28,700 surgeons in the US by 2033, highlighting the continued need for skilled professionals in this field.

However, before embarking on your journey towards becoming a surgeon, careful consideration of the specialty you wish to pursue is essential. We have put up a thorough list of the most popular surgical specialties, as recommended by the American College of Surgeons (ACS), to assist you in making an informed choice. This list demonstrates how each surgeon significantly improves the lives of their patients on a daily basis by illuminating the wide range of illnesses and breadth of work that each speciality addresses.

1.       General Surgeon:

General surgeons can perform a variety of surgical treatments due to their versatility. They perform surgeries related to the gastrointestinal tract, abdomen, skin, breast, and other areas. Common procedures include appendectomy, hernia repair, gallbladder removal, and mastectomy. General surgeons often serve as the first point of contact for patients with surgical needs, and their expertise is critical in diagnosing and treating various conditions.

2.      Orthopaedic Surgeon:

Orthopaedic surgeons tackle issues with bones, joints, ligaments, tendons, and muscles. They are experts in treating musculoskeletal diseases. They perform surgeries such as joint replacements (knee, hip), fracture repairs, spinal surgeries, and sports-related injuries. Orthopaedic surgeons play a significant role in restoring mobility and improving the quality of life for patients with musculoskeletal issues.

3.     Cardiothoracic Surgeon:

Cardiothoracic surgeons focus on surgical procedures involving the heart and chest (thorax). They carry out heart operations such heart transplants, valve replacement and repair, and coronary artery bypass grafting. They also manage procedures involving the lungs and other thoracic organs. Cardiothoracic surgeons make a profound impact on patients with heart and lung diseases, potentially saving lives and improving cardiac health.

4.     Neurosurgeon:

The surgical treatment of diseases affecting the nervous system, particularly the brain and spine, is a specialty of neurosurgeons. They carry out operations for epilepsy, spinal cord injuries, brain tumours, and other neurological conditions. Their work directly affects the central nervous system and can significantly impact patients’ neurological functions and overall well-being.

5.     Plastic and Reconstructive Surgeon:

Plastic surgeons focus on reconstructive and aesthetic surgeries to repair and enhance the appearance of various body parts. They perform procedures like breast reconstruction, cleft lip and palate repair, and cosmetic surgeries such as facelifts and rhinoplasty. Plastic surgeons play a vital role in restoring physical appearance and improving patients’ self-esteem and confidence.

6.     Ophthalmic Surgeon:

Ophthalmic surgeons, also known as ophthalmologists, specialise in eye surgery. They perform procedures like cataract surgery, corneal transplants, and refractive surgeries (e.g., LASIK). Ophthalmic surgeons contribute significantly to restoring or improving vision, positively impacting patients’ daily lives and independence.

7.     Gynaecological Surgeon:

Gynaecological surgeons focus on surgical interventions for conditions affecting the female reproductive system. They perform surgeries such as hysterectomy, ovarian cyst removal, and procedures to treat endometriosis. Gynaecological surgeons play a crucial role in women’s health and may also perform fertility-related surgeries.

8.     Urological Surgeon:

Urological surgeons are experts in performing surgical procedures to treat diseases that affect the male reproductive system and urinary tract. They carry out operations like bladder surgery, prostate surgery, and kidney stone removal. Urological surgeons can improve patients’ urinary functions and address issues like incontinence and infertility.

9.     Critical Care Surgeon

Critical care surgeons play a crucial role in managing patients with acute, life-threatening, or potentially life-threatening surgical conditions. These highly specialised surgeons have undergone fellowship training, equipping them with specific expertise in handling injuries stemming from trauma, burns, surgical procedures, infections, acute inflammation, or ischemia. They excel in providing immediate and intensive care to critically ill patients, often in critical care units or emergency settings, where prompt and precise surgical interventions can be the difference between life and death.

10. Obstetrician and gynaecologist

An obstetrician and gynaecologist (OB/GYN) are medical specialists who receive specific training to provide comprehensive care for the female reproductive system. They are adept in two closely related areas of expertise, which are obstetrics and gynaecology.

Obstetrics is the medical specialty that specialises in treating pregnant patients. It includes prenatal care, delivery of newborns, and postpartum care for both the mother and the baby. Throughout the whole pregnancy, obstetricians are essential in preserving the health and wellbeing of expectant mothers and their unborn children.

On the other hand, gynaecologists primarily concentrate on diagnosing and treating various conditions and disorders related to the female reproductive system. They provide medical care for issues such as menstrual problems, fertility concerns, hormone imbalances, and gynaecological cancers.

As OB/GYNs, these medical professionals possess a comprehensive understanding of both obstetrics and gynaecology, allowing them to offer a wide range of services related to women’s reproductive health and wellness. Their expertise and specialised training enable them to provide essential care for women at various stages of life, from adolescence to pregnancy and beyond.

Which Surgical Pathway Interests You the Most?

Choosing a surgical specialty depends on various factors, including personal interests, aptitudes, and desired patient population. Each surgical specialty offers unique challenges and opportunities to make a meaningful impact on patients’ lives, making it a fulfilling and rewarding career choice for those passionate about surgery and medicine.

As you progress through medical school and engage in clinical rotations, you will have the chance to explore different surgical departments and witness the various specialties in action. This exposure will allow you to observe and understand the unique challenges and rewards of each surgical pathway.

Connecting with practising professionals in the field is indeed a valuable step in gaining deeper insights into the different surgical specialties. Talking to experienced surgeons can provide firsthand knowledge about the day-to-day experiences, challenges, and rewards of their chosen specialties.

Remember that each surgical specialty offers an opportunity to make a profound difference in the lives of patients, and it’s essential to find the area that resonates most with your interests and values. You’ll be better able to decide which surgical pathway best fits your love for medicine and patient care if you keep an open mind and actively consider your possibilities.

Ready to Pursue your Medical Career?

For aspiring medical students, researching and gathering information about potential medical schools is an essential step in the application process. It’s a good idea to reach out to graduates and current students to gain insights into their experiences, the curriculum, facilities, and overall environment of the school.

If you are considering Windsor School of Medicine, we can comprehensively guide you about the programs we offer, admission requirements, campus facilities, and other pertinent details to make sure that you make an informed decision about where to pursue your medical education because it can significantly impact your future career and academic journey.

You can get in touch with our experts for advice and career counselling:

  • Tel: 1-869-466-1220 / 1-869-466-6157 / 1-708-235-1940
  • Fax: 1-869-465-0593
  • Email:

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